Cell Mediated Immunity Explained. Immunity has now become a hot topic due and thanks to corona virus pandemic which is showing how immunity plays an important role in fighting pathogens away and keep us safe. Everyone needs to know why immunity plays an important role in their daily life and how they can improve their immune system in natural ways. We have got so many ways to increase our immunity through some foods and fruits. If we follow eating them regularly then we will be able to fight diseases away and lead a healthy life. In this article we will learn about Cell Mediated Immunity.
Cell Mediated Immunity Explained || Cell Mediated Immunity Basics
Human body has a number of ways to fight away nasty pathogens there are two types of adaptive or specific immunity
- Cell Mediated Immunity
- Anti body mediated immunity
White blood cells (WBC) which are known as first line of defense in human body to fight pathogens play an important role in adaptive immunity, the lymphocytes in cell mediated immunity are known as T-cells and also include Cytotoxic T-cells, Helper T-Cells and Supressor T-cells.
Now T-cells responds to antigens located on pathogens. Antigens contain region called antigenic determinants that work to activate T-cells, these T-cells can connect to the antigenic determinants or epitopes. Antigens can be displayed on other cells such as Macrophages, the Microphage displays the antigen on an area called the major histo compatibility complex (MHC) protein.
There are two types of MHC proteins
Type 1 displays antigens manufactured inside of the cell
Type 2 displays antigens from pathogens that were ingested via phagocytosis
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Here a macrophage is displayed an antigen on an MHC protein, we say the macrophage is an antigen presenting cell. Lymphocytes can now connect with the antigen via an antigen receptor the macrophage responds to this connection by secreting proteins of peptides substances known as cytokines. Cytokines can bind to the surface of T-lymphocytes, the antigen receptor connection along with the secretion of cytokines works to activate the T-cell, this process is called co-stimulation.
Activated T-cells form clones, Helper T-cells contain the cd-4 protein in cell membrane. Cytotoxic T-cell contains cd-8 protein in their cell membrane, the cytokine secreted by helper T-cells work to activate other immune system cells.
Cytokines from cytotoxic T-cells work to destroy pathogens these include perforins, granzymes, granulysines.
Suppressor T-cells work to suppress the immune response which can get out of control.
Hope this article has helped you in understanding Cell Mediated Immunity